The Seven Sacraments

Refresh your knowledge of the Catholic Faith and Catechism

The Seven Sacraments (7): Matrimony

Nowhere is the “family connection” so evident as in the sacrament of matrimony. For it is matrimony that makes new Christian homes, which tradition calls “domestic churches.” Matrimony is the sacrament by which a baptised man and a baptised woman bind themselves for life in a lawful marriage and receive the grace to fulfil the duties of the married state.

The Bible presents marriage as the primary metaphor for the union of God with his people, Christ and the Church. This theme recurs in the Old Testament, and it finds its fullest expression in the fifth chapter of St Paul’s Letter to the Ephesians: “A man shall leave his father and mother and be joined to his wife, and the two shall become one flesh (Eph 5:31). St Paul goes on to say: “This mystery is a profound one, and I am saying that it refers to Christ and the Church” (v. 32). Paul’s word for mystery, mysterion, is the early Church’s preferred terms for “sacrament”: in fact, in this passage, it is was translated into Latin as sacramentum.

Christ has married the Church, indissolubly and eternally. He has given His own life for her life, and that makes matrimony a sacrament. Prior to the coming of Christ, marriage was a natural phenomenon and even a covenanted union; but it became a sacrament of grace only when Christ established a new family order is his own flesh and blood with the Church as his bride and very body (for the two become “one flesh”).

Thus, every sacramental marriage becomes, as it were, a homily, a message, an icon of the union between Christ and his Church.

The free consent of a man and a woman is what constitutes the sacrament. As soon as the couple expresses and exchanges consent, they have ratified their covenant. But the sacrament of matrimony becomes purely an absolutely in dissoluble only when that marriage is consummated through the act of marriage: that is, sexual intercourse.

Matrimony is ratified by vows and consummated by sexual union. Thus, the ministers of the sacrament of marriage are the husband and wife. Ordinarily, for validity, a priest or deacon will preside at the exchange of vows and “witness” on behalf of the Church.

Christ made marriage a sacrament of his total, unbreakable, and abundantly fruitful communion with the Church. That is why the Church has always forbidden divorce, polygamy, birth control, abortion, sodomy, and other practices that destroy matrimony’s power to signify God’s love.

What are the effects of the sacrament? Like all sacraments, matrimony brings about an increase in sanctifying grace; that is, even apart from your spouse, you are joined closer to Jesus Christ. You receive a greater fullness of the Holy Spirit (see CCC, n. 1624). You mature as a child of God. Then you receive a special sacramental grace that enables you to love with a divine love, to love as Christ loves, to forgive as Christ forgives. For, unless the couple is willing to live like him, love like him, and forgive like him, their marriage will not work (see CCC, n. 1609).

From: “Swear to God – The Promise and Power of the Sacraments”, Scott Hahn, Doubleday, 2004.

If you would like to read more about the sacrament of Matrimony, the relevant section of the Compendium of the Catechism of the Catholic Church is reproduced below. The numbers in blue are the paragraph numbers from the full Catechism.


337. What is the plan of God regarding man and woman? 1601-1605

God who is love and who created man and woman for love has called them to love. By creating man and woman he called them to an intimate communion of life and of love in marriage: “So that they are no longer two, but one flesh” (Matthew 19:6). God said to them in blessing “Be fruitful and multiply” (Genesis 1:28).

338. For what ends has God instituted Matrimony? 1659-1660

The marital union of man and woman, which is founded and endowed with its own proper laws by the Creator, is by its very nature ordered to the communion and good of the couple and to the generation and education of children. According to the original divine plan this conjugal union is indissoluble, as Jesus Christ affirmed: “What God has joined together, let no man put asunder” (Mark 10:9).

339. How does sin threaten marriage? 1606-1608 

Because of original sin, which caused a rupture in the God-given communion between man and woman, the union of marriage is very often threatened by discord and infidelity. However, God in his infinite mercy gives to man and woman the grace to bring the union of their lives into accord with the original divine plan.

340. What does the Old Testament teach about marriage? 1609-1611

God helped his people above all through the teaching of the Law and the Prophets to deepen progressively their understanding of the unity and indissolubility of marriage. The nuptial covenant of God with Israel prepared for and prefigured the new covenant established by Jesus Christ the Son of God, with his spouse, the Church.

341. What new element did Christ give to Matrimony? 1612-1617; 1661 

Christ not only restored the original order of matrimony but raised it to the dignity of a sacrament, giving spouses a special grace to live out their marriage as a symbol of Christ’s love for his bride the Church: “Husbands, love your wives as Christ loves the Church” (Ephesians 5:25).

342. Are all obliged to get married? 1618-1620

Matrimony is not an obligation for everyone, especially since God calls some men and women to follow the Lord Jesus in a life of virginity or of celibacy for the sake of the Kingdom of Heaven. These renounce the great good of Matrimony to concentrate on the things of the Lord and seek to please him. They become a sign of the absolute supremacy of Christ’s love and of the ardent expectation of his glorious return.

343. How is the sacrament of Matrimony celebrated? 1621-1624

Since Matrimony establishes spouses in a public state of life in the Church, its liturgical celebration is public, taking place in the presence of a priest (or of a witness authorized by the Church) and other witnesses.

344. What is matrimonial consent? 1625-1632; 1662-1663 

Matrimonial consent is given when a man and a woman manifest the will to give themselves to each other irrevocably in order to live a covenant of faithful and fruitful love. Since consent constitutes Matrimony, it is indispensable and irreplaceable. For a valid marriage the consent must have as its object true Matrimony, and be a human act which is conscious and free and not determined by duress or coercion.

345. What is required when one of the spouses is not a Catholic? 1633-1637 

A mixed marriage (between a Catholic and a baptized non-Catholic) needs for liceity the permission of ecclesiastical authority. In a case of disparity of cult (between a Catholic and a non-baptized person) a dispensation is required for validity. In both cases, it is essential that the spouses do not exclude the acceptance of the essential ends and properties of marriage. It is also necessary for the Catholic party to accept the obligation, of which the non-Catholic party has been advised, to persevere in the faith and to assure the baptism and Catholic education of their children.

346. What are the effects of the sacrament of Matrimony? 1638-1642

The sacrament of Matrimony establishes a perpetual and exclusive bond between the spouses. God himself seals the consent of the spouses. Therefore, a marriage which is ratified and consummated between baptized persons can never be dissolved. Furthermore, this sacrament bestows upon the spouses the grace necessary to attain holiness in their married life and to accept responsibly the gift of children and provide for their education.

347. What sins are gravely opposed to the sacrament of Matrimony? 1645-1648

Adultery and polygamy are opposed to the sacrament of matrimony because they contradict the equal dignity of man and woman and the unity and exclusivity of married love. Other sins include the deliberate refusal of one’s procreative potential which deprives conjugal love of the gift of children and divorce which goes against the indissolubility of marriage.

348. When does the Church allow the physical separation of spouses? 1629; 1649 

The Church permits the physical separation of spouses when for serious reasons their living together becomes practically impossible, even though there may be hope for their reconciliation. As long as one’s spouse lives, however, one is not free to contract a new union, except if the marriage be null and be declared so by ecclesiastical authority.

349. What is the attitude of the Church toward those people who are divorced and then remarried? 1650-1651; 1665 

The Church, since she is faithful to her Lord, cannot recognize the union of people who are civilly divorced and remarried. “Whoever divorces his wife and marries another, commits adultery against her; and if she divorces her husband and marries another, she commits adultery” (Mark 10:11-12). The Church manifests an attentive solicitude toward such people and encourages them to a life of faith, prayer, works of charity and the Christian education of their children. However, they cannot receive sacramental absolution, take Holy Communion, or exercise certain ecclesial responsibilities as long as their situation, which objectively contravenes God’s law, persists.

350. Why is the Christian family called a domestic church1655-1658; 1666 

The Christian family is called the domestic church because the family manifests and lives out the communal and familial nature of the Church as the family of God. Each family member, in accord with their own role, exercises the baptismal priesthood and contributes toward making the family a community of grace and of prayer, a school of human and Christian virtue and the place where the faith is first proclaimed to children.

The Seven Sacraments (6): Holy Orders

Through ordination, God raises up fathers for his earthly family, the Church. Holy orders is the sacrament by which men receive the power and grace to perform the sacred duties of bishops, priests, and other ministers of the Church. Jesus instituted the sacrament at the Last Supper when he gave his Apostles the power and the duty to say Mass, to “Do this in remembrance of me.” After his resurrection, he breathed on them and gave them the power to forgive sins. By his command, he enabled them to heal in his name (see Mt 10:8).

Throughout the Bible. Priests appear as spiritual fathers. In the Book of Genesis, priestly paternity is explicit. In the beginning, there is no separate priestly caste. Family and church are one. Houses are domestic sanctuaries, meals are sacrifices, hearths are altars – all because fathers are empowered as priests by nature. Each father passes on his priesthood to his firstborn son.

The practice continues until Israel sins grievously by worshipping the golden calf. At that point, God confines the priesthood to the Levites, the only tribe that remained faithful to him. Yet, even then, the people of Israel looked to their priests as fathers. In the Book of Judges, when a Levite appeared at Micah’s door, Micah pleads, “Stay with me, and be to me a father and a priest” (Jg 17:10). A chapter later, Micah’s plea is echoed, almost verbatim, by the Danites as they invite the Levite to be a priest for their entire tribe: “Come with us, and be to us a father and a priest” (Jg 10:19).

In the fullness of time, God the Father sent Jesus as a faithful firstborn son (Heb 1:6) and a priest (Heb 10:21) – not only to restore the natural priesthood, but also to establish a supernatural priesthood within the divine family, the Church.

That is the priesthood exercised by Christ through the apostles. In turn, the apostles ordained priests, bishops, and deacons to succeed them (See Acts 14:23, 20:17; Phil 1:1; Tit 1:5-9). We see it today as bishops lay hands upon priests and pronounce the words of consecration – the essential rite of ordination. Only a bishop can validly ordain a man as priest.

How does a priest “father” the family of the Church? Think of the ways an ordinary dad fathers his natural children. Fathers give life. They nurture lift. As breadwinners, they care for it. They instruct. They raise that life to maturity. In an analogous way, priests give life through baptism; they nourish their spiritual offspring through the Eucharist; they discipline through penance; they instruct through their preaching; they raise their congregations to full Christian maturity as contributing members of God’s family.

From: “Swear to God – The Promise and Power of the Sacraments”, Scott Hahn, Doubleday, 2004.

If you would like to read more about the sacrament of Holy Orders, the relevant section of the Compendium of the Catechism of the Catholic Church is reproduced below. The numbers in blue are the paragraph numbers from the full Catechism.


322. What is the sacrament of Holy Orders? 1536

It is the sacrament through which the mission entrusted by Christ to his apostles continues to be exercised in the Church until the end of time.

323. Why is this sacrament called Holy Orders? 1537-1538

Orders designates an ecclesial body into which one enters by means of a special consecration (ordination). Through a special gift of the Holy Spirit, this sacrament enables the ordained to exercise a sacred power in the name and with the authority of Christ for the service of the People of God.

324. What place does the sacrament of Holy Orders have in the divine plan of salvation? 1539-1546; 1590-1591 

This sacrament was prefigured in the Old Covenant in the service of the Levites, in the priesthood of Aaron, and in the institution of the seventy “Elders” (Numbers 11:25). These prefigurations find their fulfillment in Christ Jesus who by the sacrifice of the cross is the “one mediator between God and man” (1 Timothy 2:5), the “High Priest according to the order of Melchizedek” (Hebrews 5:10). The one priesthood of Christ is made present in the ministerial priesthood.

“Only Christ is the true priest, the others being only his ministers.” (Saint Thomas Aquinas)

325. What are the degrees that make up the sacrament of Holy Orders? 1554

The sacrament of Holy Orders is composed of three degrees which are irreplaceable for the organic structure of the Church: the episcopate, the presbyterate and the diaconate.

326. What is the effect of episcopal ordination? 1557-1558

Episcopal ordination confers the fullness of the sacrament of Holy Orders. It makes the bishop a legitimate successor of the apostles and integrates him into the episcopal college to share with the Pope and the other bishops care for all the churches. It confers on him the offices of teaching, sanctifying, and ruling.

327. What is the office confided to a Bishop in a particular Church? 1560-1561

The bishop to whom the care of a particular Church is entrusted is the visible head and foundation of unity for that Church. For the sake of that Church, as vicar of Christ, he fulfills the office of shepherd and is assisted by his own priests and deacons.

328. What is the effect of ordination to the priesthood? 1562-1567; 1595 

The anointing of the Spirit seals the priest with an indelible, spiritual character that configures him to Christ the priest and enables him to act in the name of Christ the Head. As a co-worker of the order of bishops he is consecrated to preach the Gospel, to celebrate divine worship, especially the Eucharist from which his ministry draws its strength, and to be a shepherd of the faithful.

329. How does a priest carry out his proper ministry? 1568

A priest, although ordained for a universal mission, exercises his ministry in a particular Church. This ministry is pursued in sacramental brotherhood with other priests who form the “presbyterate”. In communion with the bishop, and depending upon him, they bear responsibility for the particular Church.

330. What is the effect of the ordination to the diaconate? 1569-1571; 1596

The deacon, configured to Christ the servant of all, is ordained for service to the Church. He carries out this service under the authority of his proper bishop by the ministry of the Word, of divine worship, of pastoral care and of charity.

331. How is the sacrament of Holy Orders celebrated? 1572-1574; 1597 

The sacrament of Holy Orders is conferred, in each of its three degrees, by means of the imposition of hands on the head of the ordinand by the Bishop who pronounces the solemn prayer of consecration. With this prayer he asks God on behalf of the ordinand for the special outpouring of the Holy Spirit and for the gifts of the Spirit proper to the ministry to which he is being ordained.

332. Who can confer this sacrament? 1575-1576;  1600

Only validly ordained bishops, as successors of the apostles, can confer the sacrament of Holy Orders.

333. Who can receive this sacrament? 1577-1578; 1598 

This sacrament can only be validly received by a baptized man. The Church recognizes herself as bound by this choice made by the Lord Himself. No one can demand to receive the sacrament of Holy Orders, but must be judged suitable for the ministry by the authorities of the Church.

334. Is it necessary to be celibate to receive the sacrament of Holy Orders? 1579-1580; 1599

It is always necessary to be celibate for the episcopacy. For the priesthood in the Latin Church men who are practicing Catholics and celibate are chosen, men who intend to continue to live a celibate life “for the kingdom of heaven” (Matthew 19:12). In the Eastern Churches marriage is not permitted after one has been ordained. Married men can be ordained to the permanent diaconate.

335. What are the effects of the sacrament of Holy Orders? 1581-1589

This sacrament yields a special outpouring of the Holy Spirit which configures the recipient to Christ in his triple office as Priest, Prophet, and King, according to the respective degrees of the sacrament. Ordination confers an indelible spiritual character and therefore cannot be repeated or conferred for a limited time.

336. With what authority is the priestly ministry exercised? 1547-1553; 1592

Ordained priests in the exercise of their sacred ministry speak and act not on their own authority, nor even by mandate or delegation of the community, but rather in the Person of Christ the Head and in the name of the Church. Therefore, the ministerial priesthood differs essentially and not just in degree from the priesthood common to all the faithful for whose service Christ instituted it.

The Seven Sacraments (5): Anointing of the Sick

The sign of anointing here expresses healing and consolation. Anointing strengthens the spirit of someone who is suffering, but it also commends them to Christ, “that he may raise them up and save them.” This anointing extends Christ’s healing touch (see CCC, n. 1504). The sacrament always heals in the way Christ intends. Sometimes it brings about a physical cure or relief of symptoms. Most times it heals by empowering the sick to suffer like Christ. Anointed, we are “other christs”; and we must never forget that Christ himself suffered and died. Scripture tells us that the perfect Man – who like a pioneer, blazed our trail to salvation – was made perfect through suffering” (Heb 2:10). In our suffering, Christ brings us closer to himself in his sufferings on the cross. And we are made perfect! “My grace is sufficient for you,” he told St Paul. “My power is made perfect in weakness” (2 Cor 12:9). Like St Paul, the anointed Christian can say: “I complete what is lacking in Christ’s afflictions for the sake of his body, that is, the Church” (Col 1:24). Our suffering works as reparation for our own sins and, like Christ’s, for the salvation of other members of God’s family.

In most of the world and through much of history, healing has been a family affair. The family tends to its sick members, treats them, feeds them, administers the medicines, and applies the ointments. In most of the world and through much of history, people died at home, in their beds. Their families prepared their bodies for burial by anointing.

By sacramental anointing, the Church heals us and prepares us for the ultimate healing of our bodies at the resurrection.

St James gives us the Bible’s most explicit and eloquent record of this sacrament: “Is any among you sick? Let him call for the elders of the Church and let them pray over him, anointing him with oil in the name of the Lord; and the prayer of faith will save the sick man, and the Lord will raise him up; and if he has committed sins he will be forgiven” (Jas 5:14-15). Again, in this passage, the “elders” are the priests (from the Greek presbuteroi). The priests are the ordinary ministers of the rite, which consists of anointing the sick person with oil, blessed by the bishop.

This sacrament is often administered along with penance and the Eucharist, especially for those who are gravely ill or dying. The Catechism (n. 1525) compares this awesome to the three sacraments of initiation. As we come into God’s earthly home by the power of baptism, confirmation, and Eucharist, so we proceed to his heavenly home by the power of anointing, penance, and Eucharist, collectively called the “last rites” or “last sacraments.”

From: “Swear to God – The Promise and Power of the Sacraments”, Scott Hahn, Doubleday, 2004.

If you would like to read more about the sacrament of anointing of the sick, the relevant section of the Compendium of the Catechism of the Catholic Church is reproduced below. The numbers in blue are the paragraph numbers from the full Catechism.


313. How was sickness viewed in the Old Testament? 1499-1502

In the Old Testament sickness was experienced as a sign of weakness and at the same time perceived as mysteriously bound up with sin. The prophets intuited that sickness could also have a redemptive value for one’s own sins and those of others. Thus sickness was lived out in the presence of God from whom people implored healing.

314. What is the significance of Jesus’ compassion for the sick? 1503-1505 

The compassion of Jesus toward the sick and his many healings of the infirm were a clear sign that with him had come the Kingdom of God and therefore victory over sin, over suffering, and over death. By his own passion and death he gave new meaning to our suffering which, when united with his own, can become a means of purification and of salvation for us and for others.

315. What is the attitude of the Church toward the sick? 1506-1513; 1526-1527 

Having received from the Lord the charge to heal the sick, the Church strives to carry it out by taking care of the sick and accompanying them with her prayer of intercession. Above all, the Church possesses a sacrament specifically intended for the benefit of the sick. This sacrament was instituted by Christ and is attested by Saint James: “Is anyone among you sick? Let him call in the presbyters of the Church and let them pray over him and anoint him with oil in the name of the Lord” (James 5:14-15).

316. Who can receive the sacrament of the anointing of the sick? 1514-1515; 1528-1529 

Any member of the faithful can receive this sacrament as soon as he or she begins to be in danger of death because of sickness or old age. The faithful who receive this sacrament can receive it several times if their illness becomes worse or another serious sickness afflicts them. The celebration of this sacrament should, if possible, be preceded by individual confession on the part of the sick person.

317. Who administers this sacrament? 1516; 1530

This sacrament can be administered only by priests (bishops or presbyters).

318. How is this sacrament celebrated? 1517-1519; 1531

The celebration of this sacrament consists essentially in an anointing with oil which may be blessed by the bishop. The anointing is on the forehead and on the hands of the sick person (in the Roman rite) or also on other parts of the body (in the other rites) accompanied by the prayer of the priest who asks for the special grace of this sacrament.

319. What are the effects of this sacrament? 1520-1523; 1532 

This sacrament confers a special grace which unites the sick person more intimately to the Passion of Christ for his good and for the good of all the Church. It gives comfort, peace, courage, and even the forgiveness of sins if the sick person is not able to make a confession. Sometimes, if it is the will of God, this sacrament even brings about the restoration of physical health. In any case this Anointing prepares the sick person for the journey to the Father’s House.

320. What is Viaticum? 1524-1525

Viaticum is the Holy Eucharist received by those who are about to leave this earthly life and are preparing for the journey to eternal life. Communion in the body and blood of Christ who died and rose from the dead, received at the moment of passing from this world to the Father, is the seed of eternal life and the power of the resurrection.

The Seven Sacraments (4): Penance

This sacrament goes by many names today, most popularly “the sacrament of reconciliation” and “confession.” It is the sacrament by which Christ forgives our sins through the absolution of the priest.

The most ancient manual of the Church’s sacramental and moral life, the Didache, urged Christians to confess their sins before approaching the altar for Communion. It is, of course, by confessing our sins and receiving forgiveness that we are restored to normal family life.

The classic expression of Jesus’ doctrine of confession and forgiveness is a family story. It is the story of the prodigal son (Lk 15:11-32). In that parable, we see the drama of sin, repentance, confession, forgiveness, and restoration to the family table. All the elements are there, allgorically describing the life Jesus would leave for his Church. We are sons of almighty God, but we stray; and so he humbles himself to come down to us and give us what we need to come home to stay.

Jesus did not leave us orphans. He prepared his apostles to act as fathers in the Church. As fathers, they would forgive, like the father of the prodigal son; and, as fathers, they would help their children to get scrubbed and properly clothed for the family meal. Jesus said to Simon Peter; “I will give you the keys to the kingdom of heaven, and whatever you bind on earth shall be bound in heaven, and whatever you loose on earth will be loosed in heaven” (Mt 16:19). Jesus said to all the apostles: “If you forgive the sins of any, they are forgiven; if you retain the sins of any, they are retained” (Jn 20:23). 

The apostles took him at his word and extended that ministry to the penitents of their early congregations. St James urged his hearers to “confess your sins to one another, and pray for one another, that you may be healed” (Jas 5:16). The context is key to our understanding this passage. James is not saying that anyone can administer the sacrament of confession. He speaks of this particular ministry among the duties of the “elders of the Church” (v. 14). The Greek word for “elders” is presbuteroi, from which we derive the English “priest.” The ordinary minister of penance is a priest or bishop.

Celebration of the sacrament varies widely from time to time and place to place. Certain elements are essential. First, the person approaching the sacrament must be sorry; he must confess his sins; and he must perform the act of penance prescribed by the priest. The priest pronounces the words of absolution (“I absolve you . . .”), prays for the sinner, and does penance with hin (see CCC, n. 1448).

From: “Swear to God – The Promise and Power of the Sacraments”, Scott Hahn, Doubleday, 2004.

If you would like to read more about the sacrament of penance, the relevant section of the Compendium of the Catechism of the Catholic Church is reproduced below. The numbers in blue are the paragraph numbers from the full Catechism.


The Sacraments of Healing

295. Why did Christ institute the sacraments of Penance and the Anointing of the Sick? 1420-1421; 1426

Christ, the physician of our soul and body, instituted these sacraments because the new life that he gives us in the sacraments of Christian initiation can be weakened and even lost because of sin. Therefore, Christ willed that his Church should continue his work of healing and salvation by means of these two sacraments.


296. What is the name of this sacrament? 1422-1424

It is called the sacrament of Penance, the sacrament of Reconciliation, the sacrament of Forgiveness, the sacrament of Confession, and the sacrament of Conversion.

297. Why is there a sacrament of Reconciliation after Baptism? 1425-1426: 1484

Since the new life of grace received in Baptism does not abolish the weakness of human nature nor the inclination to sin (that is, concupiscence), Christ instituted this sacrament for the conversion of the baptized who have been separated from him by sin.

298. When did he institute this sacrament? 1485

The risen Lord instituted this sacrament on the evening of Easter when he showed himself to his apostles and said to them, “Receive the Holy Spirit. If you forgive the sins of any, they are forgiven; if you retain the sins of any, they are retained.” (John 20:22-23).

299. Do the baptized have need of conversion? 1427-1429

The call of Christ to conversion continues to resound in the lives of the baptized. Conversion is a continuing obligation for the whole Church. She is holy but includes sinners in her midst.

300. What is interior penance? 1430-1433: 1490

It is the movement of a “contrite heart” (Psalm 51:19) drawn by divine grace to respond to the merciful love of God. This entails sorrow for and abhorrence of sins committed, a firm purpose not to sin again in the future and trust in the help of God. It is nourished by hope in divine mercy.

301. What forms does penance take in the Christian life? 1434-1439

Penance can be expressed in many and various ways but above all in fasting, prayer, and almsgiving. These and many other forms of penance can be practiced in the daily life of a Christian, particularly during the time of Lent and on the penitential day of Friday.

302. What are the essential elements of the sacrament of Reconciliation? 1440-1449

The essential elements are two: the acts of the penitent who comes to repentance through the action of the Holy Spirit, and the absolution of the priest who in the name of Christ grants forgiveness and determines the ways of making satisfaction.

303. What are the acts of the penitent? 1450-1460; 1487-1492

They are: a careful examination of conscience; contrition (or repentance), which is perfect when it is motivated by love of God and imperfect if it rests on other motives and which includes the determination not to sin again; confession, which consists in the telling of one’s sins to the priest; and satisfaction or the carrying out of certain acts of penance which the confessor imposes upon the penitent to repair the damage caused by sin.

304. Which sins must be confessed? 1456

All grave sins not yet confessed, which a careful examination of conscience brings to mind, must be brought to the sacrament of Penance. The confession of serious sins is the only ordinary way to obtain forgiveness.

305. When is a person obliged to confess mortal sins? 1457

Each of the faithful who has reached the age of discretion is bound to confess his or her mortal sins at least once a year and always before receiving Holy Communion.

306. Why can venial sins also be the object of sacramental confession? 1458

The confession of venial sins is strongly recommended by the Church, even if this is not strictly necessary, because it helps us to form a correct conscience and to fight against evil tendencies. It allows us to be healed by Christ and to progress in the life of the Spirit.

307. Who is the minister of this sacrament? 1461-1466; 1495 

Christ has entrusted the ministry of Reconciliation to his apostles, to the bishops who are their successors and to the priests who are the collaborators of the bishops, all of whom become thereby instruments of the mercy and justice of God. They exercise their power of forgiving sins in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit.

308. To whom is the absolution of some sins reserved? 1463

The absolution of certain particularly grave sins (like those punished by excommunication) is reserved to the Apostolic See or to the local bishop or to priests who are authorized by them. Any priest, however, can absolve a person who is in danger of death from any sin and excommunication.

309. Is a confessor bound to secrecy? 1467  

Given the delicacy and greatness of this ministry and the respect due to people every confessor, without any exception and under very severe penalties, is bound to maintain “the sacramental seal” which means absolute secrecy about the sins revealed to him in confession.

310. What are the effects of this sacrament? 1468-1470; 1496 

The effects of the sacrament of Penance are: reconciliation with God and therefore the forgiveness of sins; reconciliation with the Church; recovery, if it has been lost, of the state of grace; remission of the eternal punishment merited by mortal sins, and remission, at least in part, of the temporal punishment which is the consequence of sin; peace, serenity of conscience and spiritual consolation; and an increase of spiritual strength for the struggle of Christian living.

311. Can this sacrament be celebrated in some cases with a general confession and general absolution? 1480-1484

In cases of serious necessity (as in imminent danger of death) recourse may be had to a communal celebration of Reconciliation with general confession and general absolution, as long as the norms of the Church are observed and there is the intention of individually confessing one’s grave sins in due time.

312. What are indulgences? 1471-1479; 1498

Indulgences are the remission before God of the temporal punishment due to sins whose guilt has already been forgiven. The faithful Christian who is duly disposed gains the indulgence under prescribed conditions for either himself or the departed. Indulgences are granted through the ministry of the Church which, as the dispenser of the grace of redemption, distributes the treasury of the merits of Christ and the Saints.

The Seven Sacraments (3): Eucharist

In Holy Communion, we receive the body and blood or Christ, and we “participate” in that body and blood (1 Cor 10:16). His presence is real and substantial. We share in his flesh and blood. We become what we eat. Together we become “one body” in Christ (1 Cor 10:17), the mystical body of Christ (see Col 1:24, Eph 1:22-23).

At the family table, however, we do not merely feed our faces. St Paul took to task the Corinthians who behaved in this way (1 Cor 11:22). The family table forms not only our bodies, but also our minds and souls. This is true of human homes, and it is also true of the household of God. Our “table talk” at the Mass includes plentiful readings from the Scriptures, and this is their privileged setting. Within the Mass, we receive special graces for understanding the Word of God. Remember the disciples on the first Easter Sunday who came to know Jesus”in the breaking of the bread” (Lk 24:35). It was in this context that he opened all the Scriptures up to them (Lk 24:33). It is in the Mass that the Scriptures are “actualised” for Christians today.

The Mass is the united worship of heaven and earth. It is the re-presentation of the one sacrifice of Jesus Christ on the cross. It is the real and abiding presence of Christ the King within his kingdom on earth., the Catholic Church. The riches of the Eucharist are unfathomable and inexhaustible.

The Church has many eucharistic liturgies, and they are rich in signs and symbols. The essential rite of the Eucharist is the eucharistic prayer, or canon, said by a validly ordained priest over the offerings of bread and wine.

From: “Swear to God – The Promise and Power of the Sacraments”, Scott Hahn, Doubleday, 2004.

If you would like to read more about the sacrament of eucharist, the relevant section of the Compendium of the Catechism of the Catholic Church is reproduced below. The numbers in blue are the paragraph numbers from the full Catechism.


271. What is the Eucharist? 1322-1323; 1409

The Eucharist is the very sacrifice of the Body and Blood of the Lord Jesus which he instituted to perpetuate the sacrifice of the cross throughout the ages until his return in glory. Thus he entrusted to his Church this memorial of his death and Resurrection. It is a sign of unity, a bond of charity, a paschal banquet, in which Christ is consumed, the mind is filled with grace, and a pledge of future glory is given to us.

272. When did Jesus Christ institute the Eucharist? 1323; 1337-1340

Jesus instituted the Eucharist on Holy Thursday “the night on which he was betrayed” (1 Corinthians 11:23), as he celebrated the Last Supper with his apostles.

273. How did he institute the Eucharist? 1337-1340; 1365, 1406

After he had gathered with his apostles in the Cenacle, Jesus took bread in his hands. He broke it and gave it to them saying, “Take this and eat it, all of you; this is my Body which will be given up for you”. Then, he took the cup of wine in his hands and said, “Take this and drink of this, all of you. This is the cup of my Blood, the Blood of the new and everlasting covenant. It will be shed for you and for all so that sins may be forgive. Do this in memory of me”.

274. What does the Eucharist represent in the life of the Church? 1324-1327; 1407

It is the source and summit of all Christian life. In the Eucharist, th e sanctifying action of God in our regard and our worship of him reach their high point. It contains the whole spiritual good of the Church, Christ himself, our Pasch. Communion with divine life and the unity of the People of God are both expressed and effected by the Eucharist. Through the eucharistic celebration we are united already with the liturgy of heaven and we have a foretaste of eternal life.

275. What are the names for this sacrament? 1328-1332

The unfathomable richness of this sacrament is expressed in different names which evoke its various aspects. The most common names are: the Eucharist, Holy Mass, the Lord’s Supper, the Breaking of the Bread, the Eucharistic Celebration, the Memorial of the passion, death and Resurrection of the Lord, the Holy Sacrifice, the Holy and Divine Liturgy, the Sacred Mysteries, the Most Holy Sacrament of the Altar, and Holy Communion.

276. Where does the Eucharist fit in the divine plan of salvation? 1333-1344

The Eucharist was foreshadowed in the Old Covenant above all in the annual Passover meal celebrated every year by the Jews with unleavened bread to commemorate their hasty, liberating departure from Egypt. Jesus foretold it in his teaching and he instituted it when he celebrated the Last Supper with his apostles in a Passover meal. The Church, faithful to the command of her Lord, “Do this in memory of me” (1 Corinthians 11:24), has always celebrated the Eucharist, especially on Sunday, the day of the Resurrection of Jesus.

277. How is the celebration of the Holy Eucharist carried out? 1345-1355; 1408

The Eucharist unfolds in two great parts which together form one, single act of worship. The Liturgy of the Word involves proclaiming and listening to the Word of God. The Liturgy of the Eucharist includes the presentation of the bread and wine, the prayer or the anaphora containing the words of consecration, and communion.

278. Who is the minister for the celebration of the Eucharist? 1348; 1411

The celebrant of the Eucharist is a validly ordained priest (bishop or priest) who acts in the Person of Christ the Head and in the name of the Church.

279. What are the essential and necessary elements for celebrating the Eucharist? 1412

The essential elements are wheat bread and grape wine.

280. In what way is the Eucharist a memorial of the sacrifice of Christ? 1362-1367

The Eucharist is a memorial in the sense that it makes present and actual the sacrifice which Christ offered to the Father on the cross, once and for all on behalf of mankind. The sacrificial character of the Holy Eucharist is manifested in the very words of institution, “This is my Body which is given for you” and “This cup is the New Covenant in my Blood that will be shed for you” (Luke 22:19-20). The sacrifice of the cross and the sacrifice of the Eucharist are one and the same sacrifice. The priest and the victim are the same; only the manner of offering is different: in a bloody manner on the cross, in an unbloody manner in the Eucharist.

281. In what way does the Church participate in the eucharistic sacrifice? 1368-1372; 1414

In the Eucharist the sacrifice of Christ becomes also the sacrifice of the members of his Body. The lives of the faithful, their praise, their suffering, their prayers, their work, are united to those of Christ. In as much as it is a sacrifice, the Eucharist is likewise offered for all the faithful, living and dead, in reparation for the sins of all and to obtain spiritual and temporal benefits from God. The Church in heaven is also united to the offering of Christ.

282. How is Christ present in the Eucharist? 1373-1375; 1413

Jesus Christ is present in the Eucharist in a unique and incomparable way. He is present in a true, real and substantial way, with his Body and his Blood, with his Soul and his Divinity. In the Eucharist, therefore, there is present in a sacramental way, that is, under the Eucharistic species of bread and wine, Christ whole and entire, God and Man.

283. What is the meaning of transubstantiation1376-1377; 1413 

Transubstantiation means the change of the whole substance of bread into the substance of the Body of Christ and of the whole substance of wine into the substance of his Blood. This change is brought about in the eucharistic prayer through the efficacy of the word of Christ and by the action of the Holy Spirit. However, the outward characteristics of bread and wine, that is the “eucharistic species”, remain unaltered.

284. Does the breaking of the bread divide Christ? 1377

The breaking of the bread does not divide Christ. He is present whole and entire in each of the eucharistic species and in each of their parts.

285. How long does the presence of Christ last in the Eucharist? 1377

The presence of Christ continues in the Eucharist as long as the eucharistic species subsist.

286. What kind of worship is due to the sacrament of the Eucharist? 1378-1381; 1418

The worship due to the sacrament of the Eucharist, whether during the celebration of the Mass or outside it, is the worship of latria, that is, the adoration given to God alone. The Church guards with the greatest care Hosts that have been consecrated. She brings them to the sick and to other persons who find it impossible to participate at Mass. She also presents them for the solemn adoration of the faithful and she bears them in processions. The Church encourages the faithful to make frequent visits to adore the Blessed Sacrament reserved in the tabernacle.

287. Why is the Holy Eucharist the paschal banquet? 1382-1384: 1391-1396

The Holy Eucharist is the paschal banquet in as much as Christ sacramentally makes present his Passover and gives us his Body and Blood, offered as food and drink, uniting us to himself and to one another in his sacrifice.

288. What is the meaning of the altar? 1383; 1410

The altar is the symbol of Christ himself who is present both as sacrificial victim (the altar of the sacrifice) and as food from heaven which is given to us (the table of the Lord).

289. When does the Church oblige her members to participate at Holy Mass? 1389; 1417

The Church obliges the faithful to participate at Holy Mass every Sunday and on holy days of obligation. She recommends participation at Holy Mass on other days as well.

290. When must one receive Holy Communion? 1389

The Church recommends that the faithful, if they have the required dispositions, receive Holy Communion whenever they participate at Holy Mass. However, the Church obliges them to receive Holy Communion at least once a year during the Easter season.

291. What is required to receive Holy Communion? 1385-1389; 1415

To receive Holy Communion one must be fully incorporated into the Catholic Church and be in the state of grace, that is, not conscious of being in mortal sin. Anyone who is conscious of having committed a grave sin must first receive the sacrament of Reconciliation before going to Communion. Also important for those receiving Holy Communion are a spirit of recollection and prayer, observance of the fast prescribed by the Church, and an appropriate disposition of the body (gestures and dress) as a sign of respect for Christ.

292. What are the fruits of Holy Communion? 1391-1397; 1416

Holy Communion increases our union with Christ and with his Church. It preserves and renews the life of grace received at Baptism and Confirmation and makes us grow in love for our neighbor. It strengthens us in charity, wipes away venial sins and preserves us from mortal sin in the future.

293. When is it possible to give Holy Communion to other Christians? 1398-1401

Catholic ministers may give Holy Communion licitly to members of the Oriental Churches which are not in full communion with the Catholic Church whenever they ask for it of their own will and possess the required dispositions. Catholic ministers may licitly give Holy Communion to members of other ecclesial communities only if, in grave necessity, they ask for it of their own will, possess the required dispositions, and give evidence of holding the Catholic faith regarding the sacrament.

294. Why is the Eucharist a “pledge of future glory”? 1402-1405

The Eucharist is a pledge of future glory because it fills us with every grace and heavenly blessing. It fortifies us for our pilgrimage in this life and makes us long for eternal life. It unites us already to Christ seated at the right hand of the Father, to the Church in heaven and to the Blessed Virgin and all the saints.

In the Eucharist, we “break the one bread that provides the medicine of immortality, the antidote for death and the food that makes us live forever in Jesus Christ.” (Saint Ignatius of Antioch)

The Seven Sacraments (2): Confirmation

Some time after baptism, the Church confers a sacrament of strengthening. The word “firm” stands at the centre of confirmation, and it is a “firming up” of the Christian. By baptism, we are born into the family. Through confirmation, God gives us the grace to reach Christian maturity within the family.

In the East, this sacrament is called “chrismation,” after the oil of chrism that is applied during the rite. “Chrism” comes from the same word as “Christ”: Christos is the Greek equivalent of the Hebrew “Messiah”. Both words mean “anointed one.” When we receive the chrism, we are anointed; we become like Christ; we become Christs. Christ himself received his “anointing” from the Father, signified by the descent of the Holy Spirit (Jn 1:32). When Christ’s redemptive work was complete, after his resurrection, He confirmed his disciples by giving them the Holy Spirit (Jn 20:22). In other words, the Father sent the Son to give us the Spirit. Christ gives us new life in baptism, but baptism is only the beginning. “Confirmation is necessary for the completion of baptismal grace” (CCC, n. 1285). In confirmation, we receive the fullness of the gift of the Holy Spirit.

Anointing symbolises the passing on of power. The Old and New Testaments are full of stories of anointing. Kings are anointed as they take the throne. Prophets receive anointing at the beginning of their ministry. Priests anoint successors for their work at the altar. These anointings are not merely ceremonial; they are efficacious, too – that is, they work wonders. One striking example is King Saul’s anointing by the prophet Samuel (see 1 Sam 10:1-9. Afterward, Samuel explains. “the spirit of the Lord will come mightily upon you, and you shall prophesy . . . and be turned into another man” (v. 6). Immediately, the story relates, “God gave him [Saul] another heart” (v. 9).

For our biblical ancestors, olive oil held many powers: It was nourishing in food, a staple of the Mediterranean diet; it fueled the lamps that lit up family homes; it was the base of most medicines; it moistened skin dried out by severe desert climates; it soothed and loosened the limbs of athletes and soldiers. In God’s family, the oils of the sacraments do all these things supernaturally. They give strength, light, nourishment and healing.

The early Christians loved the sacrament of confirmation and called it by many poetic names: the laying on of hands (see Acts 8:17-18), the seal of the Lord, the stamp of the Lord. These are all images of fatherly love for a child reaching maturity. It is as if, in confirming us, God imprints us with the signet of the family. St Paul said: “But it is God Who establishes us with you in Christ, and has commissioned us; He has put His seal upon us and given us His Spirit in our hearts as a guarantee” (1 Cor 1:21).

“The essential rite of confirmation is the laying on of hands with the anointing, accompanied by the words of the form” (see CCC, n. 1300). The ordinary minister of confirmation is a bishop or priest.

From: “Swear to God – The Promise and Power of the Sacraments”, Scott Hahn, Doubleday, 2004.

If you would like to read more about the sacrament of confirmation, the relevant section of the Compendium of the Catechism of the Catholic Church is reproduced below. The numbers in blue are the paragraph numbers from the full Catechism.


265. What place does Confirmation have in the divine plan of salvation? 1285-1288; 1315

In the Old Testament the prophets announce d that the Spirit of the Lord would rest on the awaited Messiah and on the entire messianic people. The whole life and mission of Jesus were carried out in total communion with the Holy Spirit. The apostles received the Holy Spirit at Pentecost and proclaimed “the great works of God” (Acts 2:11). They gave the gift of the same Spirit to the newly baptized by the laying on of hands. Down through the centuries, the Church has continued to live by the Spirit and to impart him to her children.

266. Why is this sacrament called Chrismation or Confirmation1289

It is called Chrismation (in the Eastern Churches: Anointing with holy myron or chrism) because the essential rite of the sacrament is anointing with chrism. It is called Confirmationbecause it confirms and strengthens baptismal grace.

267. What is the essential rite of Confirmation? 1290-1301; 1318

The essential rite of Confirmation is the anointing with Sacred Chrism (oil mixed with balsam and consecrated by the bishop), which is done by the laying on of the hand of the minister who pronounces the sacramental words proper to the rite. In the West this anointing is done on the forehead of the baptized with the words, “Be sealed with the gift of the Holy Spirit”. In the Eastern Churches of the Byzantine rite this anointing is also done on other parts of the body with the words, “The seal of the gift of the Holy Spirit”.

268. What is the effect of Confirmation? 1302-1305; 1316-1317

The effect of Confirmation is a special outpouring of the Holy Spirit like that of Pentecost. This outpouring impresses on the soul an indelible character and produces a growth in the grace of Baptism. It roots the recipient more deeply in divine sonship, binds him more firmly to Christ and to the Church and reinvigorates the gifts of the Holy Spirit in his soul. It gives a special strength to witness to the Christian faith.

269. Who can receive this sacrament? 1306-1311; 1319

Only those already baptized can and should receive this sacrament which can be received only once. To receive Confirmation efficaciously the candidate must be in the state of grace.

270. Who is the minister of Confirmation? 1312-1314

The original minister of Confirmation is the bishop. In this way the link between the confirmed and the Church in her apostolic dimension is made manifest. When a priest confers this sacrament, as ordinarily happens in the East and in special cases in the West, the link with the bishop and with the Church is expressed by the priest who is the collaborator of the bishop and by the Sacred Chrism, consecrated by the bishop himself.

The Seven Sacraments (1): Baptism

“By baptism we are reborn spiritually.” Those are the very words of the Council of Florence. Christ Himself call us to be “born anew” “of water and the Spirit” (Jn 3:3, 5). St Paul reveled in this “new creation” (2 Cor 5:17) and in our “adoption as sons” (Gal 4:5-7). By baptism we become “partakers of the divine nature” (2 Pet 1:4) that is, we share God’s very life.

Only by birth or adoption can we enjoy family life in a human household. Our birthright is to enjoy the guidance, discipline, and providence of human parents. Our parents have a duty to feed us and to foster our growth.

Born, adopted, created anew: By baptism we enter God’s family. Only by baptism can we enjoy the fullness of life of God’s household: the sharing of His table, His healing, His fatherly forgiveness and care. The early Christians saw the baptismal waters as the womb of the Church. As birth is a precondition of human family life, so baptism is the precondition of the other sacraments.

The essential action of baptism is the washing in water – by pouring or immersion – accompanied by the words: “I baptise you in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit” (Mt 29:19). The ordinary minister of baptism is a priest or deacon. But in the case of emergency, such as the danger of imminent death, anyone can baptise validly, even a Buddhist, and atheist, or a Hindu. Even such extraordinary baptism corresponds to something in human family life. The newspapers regularly carry stories of pregnant women who find themselves suddenly in hard labour, far away from husband, midwife, or obstetrician. They have to make do with strangers and bystanders. The goal is a live birth, even into the hands of an “extraordinary minister.” Afterward, and as soon as possible, the mother and child return to normal family and medical care. In the same way, a person baptised outside the normal rites of the Church should, at the first opportunity, be received into the Church by ordinary rites and instruction.

Baptism – like confirmation and holy orders – produces a permanent change in a person. These three sacraments, according to the Council of Florence, “imprint an indelible character on the soul, a kind of stamp that distiguishes it from the rest.” Thus, these three sacraments can be received validly only once; they may never be repeated by the same person.

Baptism is a sign of birth and also a sign of washing. It cleanses the sould of all sins, sins actually committed, as well as original sin inherited from our first parents.

From: “Swear to God – The Promise and Power of the Sacraments”, Scott Hahn, Doubleday, 2004.

If you would like to read more about the sacrament of baptism, the relevant section of the Compendium of the Catechism of the Catholic Church is reproduced below. The numbers in blue are the paragraph numbers from the full Catechism.

250. How are the sacraments of the Church divided? 1210-1211

The sacraments are divided into: the sacraments of Christian initiation (Baptism, Confirmation, and Holy Eucharist); the sacraments of healing (Penance and Anointing of the Sick);, and the sacraments at the service of communion and mission (Holy Orders and Matrimony). The sacraments touch all the important moments of Christian life. All of the sacraments are ordered to the Holy Eucharist “as to their end” (Saint Thomas Aquinas).


The sacraments of Christian initiation

251. How is Christian initiation brought about? 1212; 1275

Christian initiation is accomplished by means of the sacraments which establish the foundations of Christian life. The faithful born anew by Baptism are strengthened by Confirmation and are then nourished by the Eucharist.


252. What names are given to the first sacrament of initiation? 1213-1216; 1276-1277

This sacrament is primarily called Baptism because of the central rite with which it is celebrated. To baptize means to “immerse” in water. The one who is baptized is immersed into the death of Christ and rises with him as a “new creature” (2 Corinthians 5:17). This sacrament is also called the “bath of regeneration and renewal in the Holy Spirit” (Titus 3:5); and it is called “enlightenment” because the baptized becomes “a son of light” (Ephesians 5:8).

253. How is Baptism prefigured in the Old Covenant? 1217-1222

In the Old Covenant Baptism was pre-figured in various ways: water, seen as source of life and of death; in the Ark of Noah, which saved by means of water; in the passing through the Red Sea, which liberated Israel from Egyptian slavery; in the crossing of the Jordan River, that brought Israel into the promised land which is the image of eternal life.

254. Who brought to fulfillment those prefigurations? 1223-1224

All the Old Covenant prefigurations find their fulfillment in Jesus Christ. At the beginning of his public life Jesus had himself baptized by John the Baptist in the Jordan. On the cross, blood and water, signs of Baptism and the Eucharist, flowed from his pierced side. After his Resurrection he gave to his apostles this mission: “Go forth and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit” (Matthew 28:19).

255. Starting when and to whom has the Church administered Baptism? 1226-1228

From the day of Pentecost, the Church has administered Baptism to anyone who believes in Jesus Christ.

256. In what does the essential rite of Baptism consist? 1229-1245; 1278

The essential rite of this sacrament consists in immersing the candidate in water or pouring water over his or her head while invoking the name of the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit.

257. Who can receive Baptism? 1246-1252

Every person not yet baptized is able to receive Baptism.

258. Why does the Church baptize infants? 1250

The Church baptizes infants because they are born with original sin. They need to be freed from the power of the Evil One and brought into that realm of freedom which belongs to the children of God.

259. What is required of one who is to be baptized? 1253-1255

Everyone who is to be baptized is required to make a profession of faith. This is done personally in the case of an adult or by the parents and by the Church in the case of infants. Also the godfather or the godmother and the whole ecclesial community share the responsibility for baptismal preparation (catechumenate) as well as for the development and safeguarding of the faith and grace given at baptism.

260. Who can baptize? 1256; 1284

The ordinary ministers of Baptism are the bishop and the priest. In the Latin Church the deacon also can baptize. In case of necessity any person can baptize provided he has the intention of doing what the Church does. This is done by pouring water on the head of the candidate while saying the Trinitarian formula for Baptism: “I baptize you in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit”.

261. Is Baptism necessary for salvation? 1257

Baptism is necessary for salvation for all those to whom the Gospel has been proclaimed and who have had the possibility of asking for this sacrament.

262. Is it possible to be saved without Baptism? 1258-1261; 1281-1283

Since Christ died for the salvation of all, those can be saved without Baptism who die for the faith (Baptism of blood). Catechumens and all those who, even without knowing Christ and the Church, still (under the impulse of grace) sincerely seek God and strive to do his will can also be saved without Baptism (Baptism of desire). The Church in her liturgy entrusts children who die without Baptism to the mercy of God.

263. What are the effects of Baptism? 1262-1274; 1279-1280

Baptism takes away original sin, all personal sins and all punishment due to sin. It makes the baptized person a participant in the divine life of the Trinity through sanctifying grace, the grace of justification which incorporates one into Christ and into his Church. It gives one a share in the priesthood of Christ and provides the basis for communion with all Christians. It bestows the theological virtues and the gifts of the Holy Spirit. A baptized person belongs forever to Christ. He is marked with the indelible seal of Christ (character).

264. What is the meaning of the Christian name received at Baptism? 2156-2159; 2167

The name is important because God knows each of us by name, that is, in our uniqueness as persons. In Baptism a Christian receives his or her own name in the Church. It should preferably be the name of a saint who might offer the baptized a model of sanctity and an assurance of his or her intercession before God.

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